red-sea-shadow.com
Zbierky

Starodávna krása

Starodávna krása



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.


Napriek svojej povesti milujúcej tieň sa väčšine papradí nepáči, že sú vysadené v čiernej diere. Spravidla uprednostňujú polotieň a vlhkú pôdu bohatú na humus - s kopou kompostu. Foto: Betsy Arvelo.

Papraď je skromného druhu. Plazí sa pod lesnou podlahou a občas sa vynorí na povrch, aby rozvinul svoje lístie. Vyhýba sa ťažkým parfumom a jasným kvetinám, namiesto toho sa rozhodla pre základnú zelenú. Skutočne, vždy som si myslel, že papraď je obyčajná. Až keď som sa prikrčil, aby som študoval listy kapradiny, jej dávnu históriu a zvláštne návyky, začal som ju vnímať ako čokoľvek iné.

Papraď si udržuje svoje vlastné žargón. Zatiaľ čo iné rastliny si vystačia s kmeňmi, listami a výhonkami, papraď uprednostňuje podzemky, listy a lístky. Žiadne dôstojné opelenie pre dôstojnú kapradinu. Rozmnožuje sa „striedaním generácií“ a vysiela svoje prachové spóry, ktoré sa šíria vzduchom; po pristátí spór prerastie do maličkej rastliny zvanej prothallus, ktorá vytvára známu papraď. "Bolo by to, akoby naše vajíčka a spermie produkovali malé bytosti, vysoké desať centimetrov, a mali sex, a my sme to nerobili," hovorí Warren Hauk, docent biológie na Denison University v Granville, Ohio a bývalý prezident American Fern Society.

Kapradina sa držala na Zemi 350 miliónov rokov. Dnes Pteridophyta, kmeň papraďa, obsahuje asi 12 000 druhov a darí sa mu v krajinách od rovníka po severné boreálne lesy. Komária papraď, obyčajná škvrna, rastie husto medzi jazerami. Zvlnená drevná papraď lemuje lesnú podlahu. Lezecká papraď zlaňuje tehlové steny. Mesačník každý rok rozvinie jediný vroubkovaný list, ktorý lemuje piesočné duny a hory. Na jar sa himalájska dievčenská papraď leskne lososovo ružovo. Na jeseň kráľovská papraď žiari zlato oranžovo.

Po katastrofe - povedzme prúdení lávy alebo lesnom požiari - sa často ako prvá zakorení kapradina. V roku 2006 informoval denník Washington Post o kolónii kapradín dievčenskej, ktorej sa dobre darí v stanici metra D.C., asi 150 metrov pod zemou. "Prežili," hovorí Michelle Bundy, kurátorka Nadácie Hardy Fern vo Federal Way vo Washingtone. "Sú tvrdé."

Fern Fern:

ŠPORTY
Paprade nemajú kvety ani semená; namiesto toho sa sexuálne množia spórami. Spodná strana úrodných listov je zdobená vzormi sori, zhlukov až 100 prípadov spór, z ktorých každý obsahuje 64 spór. Keď sú zrelé, prípady sa otvoria a uvoľnia sa milióny drobných spór.

CROZIER
Je to ladné rozvinutie fiddleheadov na jar, ktoré nás ako prvé upozorňuje na papradie. Na rozdiel od listov väčšiny rastlín, ktoré rastú vo všetkých smeroch, vejárovitý list dozrieva od základne nahor - pevná špirála crozieru sa odvíja do charakteristického tvaru listu.

RHIZOME
Príroda ani záhradník nemusia byť pri reprodukcii závislí iba od spór. U väčšiny druhov papradí dochádza k vegetatívnemu množeniu prostredníctvom rozvetvenia podzemnej časti rastliny alebo oddenky. Na spodnej strane plazivej oddenky sú štíhle korene, ktoré zaisťujú stabilitu a rastlinám dodávajú výživu. Na koncoch vetví sa vyrábajú nové listy.

Rovnako ako ponuka. V poviedkovej knihe hostuje kaplnka víly. V medicíne zmierňuje bolesti. V dekoratívnom umení je to skratka pre vkus. Preto sa u Viktoriánov vyvinul hromadný prípad „pteridománie“, horúčky papradí. Obraz paprade bol vtlačený do keramiky, prešitý na vankúše a odliaty do kovania. Módny viktoriánsky obývací priestor zdobil wardiánsky prípad - ranné terárium - preplnené papradím. Formálne konzervatórium pre paprade, nazývané fernery, sa považovalo za vhodný doplnok viktoriánskych parkov, koncertných siení a psychiatrických nemocníc. „Ukázalo sa, že máte dobrý vkus, pretože ste videli skôr príťažlivosť rastlín lístia ako krikľavé, krikľavé kvety,“ hovorí Sarah Whittingham, autorka knihy Viktoriánska kapustnica (Shire, 2009). (Viac informácií o vášni viktoriánov pre kapradiny „The New Victorians“)

„Viktoriánske šialenstvo papradí sa nikdy nezastavilo,“ hovorí Serge Zimberoff, majiteľ škôlky Santa Rosa Tropicals, škôlky v Santa Rosa v Kalifornii. V hlavnej sezóne spoločnosť každý týždeň dodáva z laboratória do škôlky 100 000 „klonov“. "Pozri sa na televíziu," hovorí Zimberoff. "Kedykoľvek človek hovorí, vždy je v blízkosti veľká bostonská kapradina."

V 60. rokoch sa črepníková kapusta presunula do internátnej izby a obývacej izby, kde ju staral chlapík s medenou hmlistou plechovkou a dievča, pravdepodobne ako ona, menom Fern. Osviežilo sa to v 70. rokoch, keď nebolo možné bez dodávky kapradiny hladko dodať linku na vyzdvihnutie dvojitého baru.

Dnes záhradníci viac ako inokedy oceňujú vysokokvalitnú papradie s nízkou údržbou a krajinári sa zaujímajú o názov, ktorý je pomenovaný ako stumpy, kde paprade štekajú medzi polenami. Princ Charles je stále nepríjemný. „Paprade majú skutočne čistý pohľad na život,“ hovorí Tom Goforth, majiteľ spoločnosti Crow Dog Native Ferns and Gardens in Pickens v Južnej Karolíne. "Tento životný štýl vyvinuli už dávno." Ferns, myslím, sa práve rozhodol: ‘Človeče, toto sme všetko vypracovali. Prečo sa meniť? ‘?“

Naše obľúbené paprade

Foto: Bryan Whitney.

Japonský strapec (Polystichum polyblepharum)

Zóny 4–9. Tieň. Tento krajkový vždyzelený strom dosahuje výšku 24 až 32 palcov.

Foto: Bryan Whitney.

Kapusta palmová (Phlebodium aureum)

Zóny 8–10. Slnko do úplného tieňa. Tropická papraď, ktorá má plazivé oddenky, čo z nej robí pútavú voľbu pre závesný kvetináč.

Foto: Bryan Whitney.

Staghorn Fern (Platycerium)

Zóny 10. – 11. Slnko do polotieňa. Je cenený pre svoje dlhé, grafické a elegantné listy.

Foto: Bryan Whitney.

Zajačí papradie (Davallia fejeensis)

Zóny 10. – 11. Svetlý až plný odtieň. Pomenovaný pre svoje chlpaté rizómy, vyzerá skvele v urne alebo v závesnom koši.

Foto: Bryan Whitney.

Lemon Button Fern (Nephrolepis cordifolia)

Zóny 8–10. Čiastočný odtieň. Listy tejto kapradiny sú zložené z malých okrúhlych letákov. Dorastá asi do jednej stopy.

Foto: Bryan Whitney.

Victoria Lady Fern (Athyrium filix-femina „Victoriae“)

Zóny 4–8. Čiastočný až úplný odtieň. Táto listnatá papraď bola obľúbená počas viktoriánskej éry. A je odolný voči jeleňom.

Foto: Bryan Whitney.

Japonská cesmína kapradina (Cyrtomium falcatum)

Zóny 8–11. Tropická papraď s lesklými, tmavými listovými listami v tvare cesmíny vytvára očarujúcu izbovú rastlinu s nízkou údržbou.

Foto: Bryan Whitney.

Vtáčie hniezdo Fern (Asplenium nidus)

Zóny 10. – 11. Svetlý odtieň. Táto papraď so sklenenými, jasnými listami miluje vlhkosť.

Foto: Brenda Weaver.

Austrálsky stromový papradie (Cyathea cooperi)

Zóny 8–11. Ako sa stromová papraď dozrieva, stočený fiddlehead sa rozvinie.

Tipy na starostlivosť o kapradiny v interiéroch

Foto: Brenda Weaver.

Vlhkosť

Vodné paprade len vtedy, keď je povrch pôdy mierne suchý. Na udržanie vlhkosti naplňte tanierik kamienkami, na kamienky položte črepníkovú kapustu a do podšálky vložte malé množstvo vody.

Foto: Brenda Weaver.

Svetlo

Kapradiny všeobecne uprednostňujú nepriame svetlo; ich priame listy spália ich listy. Nastavte si rolety tak, aby vytvárali správne svetlo, alebo odsuňte papradie od okna.

Foto: Brenda Weaver.

Škodcovia

Ak sa vyskytne hmyz, ako sú napríklad molice alebo vošky, listy jemne umyte vodou alebo ich postriekajte prírodným insekticídom zriedeným na polovicu.


Dejiny kozmetiky

The história kozmetiky trvá najmenej 7 000 rokov a je prítomná takmer v každej spoločnosti na Zemi. Tvrdí sa, že kozmetické umenie tela bolo najskoršou formou rituálu v ľudskej kultúre. Dôkazy o tom prichádzajú vo forme použitých červených minerálnych pigmentov (červený okr) vrátane pasteliek spojených so vznikom Homo sapiens v Afrike. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Kozmetika je uvedená v Starom zákone - 2. Kráľov 9:30, kde si Jezábel namaľovala viečka - približne v roku 840 pred n. L. - a v knihe Ester sú popísané rôzne skrášľovacie procedúry. tiež.

Kozmetika sa používala aj v starom Ríme, aj keď väčšina rímskej literatúry naznačuje, že sa na ňu mračilo. Je známe, že niektoré ženy v starom Ríme vymysleli make-up vrátane očných vzorcov na bielenie pokožky a na zakrytie očí sa použil kohl. [7]


Starorímske krásy a ich kozmetická taška

V dávnych dobách bola krása rovnako aktuálna ako teraz a líčenie bolo skutočným luxusom. Diva alebo cisárovná, čo ste mali v kabelke na make-up pred dvetisíc rokmi v starovekom Ríme?

Kontroverznou misiou bolo udržiavať stále sa v starom Ríme. Dnes je talianske slovo pre make up „trucco“, čo znamená trik. Líčenie je svojím spôsobom kúzlo! V starorímskych dobách to mnohí považovali za obyčajnú manipuláciu. Starorímsky básnik Juvenal napísal, že „žena kupuje vône a krémy s cudzoložstvom“ a filozof Seneca si myslel, že nosenie kozmetiky vedie k úpadku rímskej morálky. Samozrejme, že neexistujú žiadne texty napísané ženami, ktoré by naznačovali ženský vzťah k vtedajšej kozmetike.

Historici však našli dôkazy, že najmä pre bohatých patricijov bola bohyňa Venuša - oddelenie krásy - skutočne v rýchlej voľbe.

Vieme, že ženy pre zachovanie svojej krásy išli do krajných opatrení. Už pred dvetisíc rokmi bolo krásne byť súčasťou bolesti a platilo príslovie „žiadna bolesť, žiadny zisk“. A chlapče, dôležitosť krásy sa kládla vysoko na tento zoznam muštov, ktoré mali v priebehu dňa! Niektoré veci nikdy nevyjdú z módy. Či už ste boli Vestalskou pannou alebo bohyňou, nevyhnutnosťou bolo mať dobre oblečené kadečky!

Kúpanie, prerezávanie a nalíčenie sa bolo dôležitým rituálom v každodennom živote. A kúpanie v rímskom štýle nebola jednoduchá záležitosť, pretože existovali tri druhy kúpania (Caldarium - horúce, Tepidarium - vlažné, Frigidarium - studené).

„Diva“ par excellence však pochádzala z Egypta, Kleopatry. Cleo priniesla do Ríma dotyk pôvabu pri svojej návšteve v roku 46 pred n. L. priblíženie dymového oka k masám pred webovými tutorialmi o líčení. Bolo tiež známe, že mala rada červenú peru. Späť v Egypte boli červené pery rovnako zatraceně pravé ako teraz.

Make-up a kozmetické výrobky boli, mierne povedané, vyrobené z nádhernej zmesi chemikálií a výkalov. Kombinácia prírody a vedy udržiavala zlé vlasy dni na uzde, podobne ako dnes. My dievčatá by sme sa dnes mohli tešiť z mäty na tvári, čo je presne to, čo robili aj starodávne rímske krásky. Čo by bolo vo vnútri kabelky na starodávne rímske ženy?

Áno! Kompaktné zrkadlá existovali. No, skôr ručné zrkadlo zvyčajne vyrobené z lešteného kovu alebo ortuti. Bohaté ženy si kúpili drahé zrkadlá a vytvorili si zodpovedajúce palety - ktoré boli k dispozícii v drevených, kostených alebo zlatých škatuliach.

Kozmetické masky

Kozmetické masky boli nevyhnutnosťou pred nalíčením. Zahŕňali zmes potu z ovčej vlny, placenty, výkalov, zvieracieho moču, síry, mletých škrupín ustrice a žlče. A než začnete s hnusom súdiť, skontrolujte zoznam ingrediencií vo vašich obľúbených krémoch, som si istý, že zistíte, že sa veci príliš nezmenili! Kúpanie v somárskom mlieku uprednostňovala Kleopatra. A to je skôr, ako by ste si vybielili pokožku slínom, trusom a olovom. Tuk z labutí bol bestsellerom na zbavenie sa vrások. Lákavejšími ingredienciami použitými v kozmetických maskách a kúrach boli ružová voda, vajcia, olivový olej, med, aníz, mandľový olej a kadidlo.

Očné tiene

Žiadna riasenka? Žiaden problém! Spálený korok bol prostriedok na zahustenie mihalníc, späť za dňa. Rímske ženy mali rady svoje riasy dlhé, husté a kučeravé, ako znamenie krásy prinesené z Egypta a Indie.

Na vylepšenie dlhých mihalníc mohol byť ešte dôležitejší dôvod. Rímsky autor a prírodný filozof Plínius starší napísal, že vypadli z nadmerného sexu, a preto bolo obzvlášť dôležité, aby si ženy nechali riasy dlho, aby dokázali svoju cudnosť.

Kajal zmiešaný so sadzami a antimónom sa použil na podšívku obočia a očí a nanášal sa pomocou zaoblenej tyčinky vyrobenej zo slonoviny, skla, kostí alebo dreva. Zuhoľnatené lupene ruží a dátumové kamene boli ďalšími výrobkami používanými na zatemnenie očí. Zelená a modrá farba boli tiež obľúbenými farbami na očné tiene, ktoré sa zvyčajne vyrábali zo zmesi minerálov.

Frida Kahlo by bola v starom Ríme úplne v móde, pretože sa im páčilo tmavé obočie, ktoré sa takmer stretlo v strede, a snažili sa to dosiahnuť tak, že si obočie zatemnili antimónom alebo sadzami a potom ich predĺžili dovnútra.

Červené pery sa dosiahli použitím brómu, šťavy z chrobákov a včelieho vosku pomocou holuby. Plus pomocná ruka od kozmety (otrokyne, ktoré zdobili ich milenky), ktoré tvrdo pracovali na skrášlení svojich bohatých rímskych mileniek.

Martial (starorímsky autor) sa vysmieval ženám, ktoré mali kvôli horúcemu podnebiu horúce červené rúcho, čo spôsobilo, že make-up stekal po lícach. Blusher bol čokoľvek, od drahých dovezených červených okrov alebo okvetných lístkov ruží až po jedovaté červené olovo. Koniec rozpočtu farebného spektra červenanej farby bol tvorený spodkami vína a morušou. Rímske dámy by si tiež líčili hnedé morské riasy na tvári ako ružové, čím dosiahli požadovaný efekt a zároveň boli upokojujúco neškodné.

Líčenie páchlo tak zle, že rímske divy nosili štipľavý parfum, ktorý dodával prísľub ruže nad olovom. Parfémy boli používané tak intenzívne, že Cicero tvrdil, že „správna vôňa pre ženu vôbec nie je.“

Prišli v najrôznejších formách, tekuté, tuhé a lepkavé a každá príležitosť mala špecifickú vôňu. Deodoranty vyrobené z kamenca, kosatca a okvetných lístkov ruží boli úplne bežné. Vyrábali sa väčšinou maceráciou s kvetmi alebo bylinami a olejom. Destilačná technológia, ako aj väčšina dovážaných surovín, pochádzajú z východu.

Táto stredomorská vlhkosť - nikdy to nie je dobrá vec pre „up-do“. Každé ráno ornatrice (kaderníctvo) sa postarala o kadere pomocou kalamistra čo bol názov pre rímske curlingy i ron, bronzové tyče ohrievané na rozpálenom popole. V podstate pôvodné ‘GHD’ spolu s olivovým olejovým sérom. Účesová móda v Ríme sa neustále menila, najmä v období rímskeho Imperia l. Existovalo množstvo rôznych spôsobov úpravy vlasov. Vo všeobecnosti sa s barbarmi spájal „prirodzený“ štýl, takže rímske ženy uprednostňovali zložité a neprirodzené účesy, ktoré maximálne zobrazovali bohatstvo a spoločenské postavenie nositeľa.

Zabudnite na heslo „menej je viac“, pre starorímske ženy „viac bolo viac“!


2. Filozofické koncepcie krásy

Každý z nižšie načrtnutých pohľadov má veľa výrazov, z ktorých niektoré môžu byť navzájom nekompatibilné. V mnohých alebo možno vo väčšine súčasných formulácií sú prítomné prvky viac ako jedného takého účtu. Napríklad Kantovo zaobchádzanie s krásou z hľadiska nezaujatého pôžitku má zjavné prvky hedonizmu, zatiaľ čo extatický novoplatonizmus Plotinusa zahŕňa nielen jednotu objektu, ale aj skutočnosť, že krása volá po láske alebo adorácii. Je však tiež potrebné poznamenať, aké rozdielne alebo dokonca nezlučiteľné sú mnohé z týchto názorov: napríklad niektorí filozofi spájajú krásu výlučne s používaním, iní práve s zbytočnosťami.

2.1 Klasická koncepcia

Historik umenia Heinrich Wölfflin podáva zásadný popis klasickej koncepcie krásy, ako ju stelesňuje talianska renesančná maľba a architektúra:

Ústrednou myšlienkou talianskej renesancie je dokonalá proporcia. V ľudskej postave ako v budove sa táto epocha snažila dosiahnuť obraz dokonalosti v pokoji v sebe. Každá forma sa vyvinula do existujúcej bytosti, celok sa voľne koordinoval: nič iné ako samostatne živé časti .... V systéme klasickej kompozície si jednotlivé časti, hoci môžu byť pevne zakorenené v celku, zachovávajú určitú samostatnosť. Nejde o anarchiu primitívneho umenia: časť je podmienená celkom, a napriek tomu neprestáva mať svoj vlastný život. Pre diváka to predpokladá artikuláciu, postup od časti k časti, čo je veľmi odlišná operácia od vnímania ako celku. (Wölfflin 1932, 9–10, 15)

Klasická predstava je taká, že krása spočíva v usporiadaní integrálnych častí do súvislého celku podľa proporcií, harmónie, symetrie a podobných pojmov. Toto je prvotná západná koncepcia krásy a je zakomponovaná do klasickej a neoklasickej architektúry, sochárstva, literatúry a hudby všade, kde sa objavia. Aristoteles hovorí v Poetika že „aby bol krásny, živý tvor a každý celok zložený z častí, musí ... predstavovať určitý poriadok v usporiadaní častí“ (Aristoteles, zväzok 2, 2322 [1450b34]). A v Metafyzika: „Hlavnými formami krásy sú poriadok a symetria a definitívnosť, ktoré matematické vedy osobitne preukazujú“ (Aristoteles, zväzok 2 1705 [1078a36]). Tento názor, ako naznačuje Aristoteles, sa niekedy scvrkáva na matematický vzorec, napríklad na zlatý rez, ale netreba ho chápať tak striktne. Koncepciu ilustrujú predovšetkým také texty, ako je Euklid Prvky a také diela architektúry ako Parthenon a opäť Canon sochára Polykleitosa (koniec piateho / začiatok štvrtého storočia pred n. l.).

The Canon bola nielen socha navrhnutá tak, aby vykazovala dokonalý pomer, ale aj dnes už stratené pojednanie o kráse. Lekár Galen charakterizuje text tak, že špecifikuje napríklad proporcie „prsta k prstu a všetkých prstov k metakarpu a zápästia, a všetkých týchto k predlaktiu a k predlaktiu k paži. , vlastne všetko ku všetkému…. Za to, že sme nás v tom pojednaní naučili všetko symetriae tela, Polyclitus podporil jeho pojednanie dielom, pričom podľa jeho pojednania vyrobil sochu človeka a samotnú sochu nazval, rovnako ako pojednanie, Canon“(Citované v Pollitt 1974, 15). Je dôležité poznamenať, že pojem „symetria“ v klasických textoch je odlišný a bohatší ako jeho súčasné použitie na označenie bilaterálneho zrkadlenia. Presne tiež odkazuje na druhy harmonických a merateľných proporcií medzi časťami charakteristickými pre objekty, ktoré sú krásne v klasickom zmysle a ktoré mali aj morálnu váhu. Napríklad v Sofistovi (228c-e) Platón popisuje cnostné duše ako symetrické.

Starorímsky architekt Vitruvius podáva tak dobre charakteristiku klasickej koncepcie ako ktorákoľvek iná, a to tak v komplexnosti, ako aj v primeranej miere v jej základnej jednote:

Architektúru tvorí poriadok, ktorý sa v gréčtine nazýva taxíkya usporiadanie, ktoré Gréci pomenujú diatéza, a proporcie a symetrie a dekorácie a distribúcie, ktoré sa v Grékoch nazývajú hospodárstvo.

Poriadok je vyvážené prispôsobenie detailov diela osobitne, a ako celok, usporiadanie proporcie so zreteľom na symetrický výsledok.

Z pomeru vyplýva pôvabná podoba: vhodné zobrazenie detailov v ich kontexte. Toto sa dosiahne, ak sú podrobnosti diela výšky zodpovedajúcej ich šírke, šírky primeranej ich dĺžke jedným slovom, keď všetko má symetrickú korešpondenciu.

Symetria je tiež vhodnou harmóniou, ktorá vyplýva z detailov samotnej práce: zhody každého z uvedených detailov s formou dizajnu ako celku. Rovnako ako v ľudskom tele, aj od lakťov, nôh, dlaní, palcov a iných malých častí pochádza symetrická kvalita eurytmie. (Vitruvius, 26–27)

Akvinský v typicky aristotelovskej pluralitnej formulácii hovorí, že „Existujú tri požiadavky na krásu. Po prvé, integrita alebo dokonalosť - pretože ak je niečo narušené, je to škaredé. Potom existuje primeraný pomer alebo zhoda. A tiež jasnosť: odkiaľ sa veci, ktoré sú jasne sfarbené, nazývajú krásnymi “(Summa Theologica I, 39, 8).

Francis Hutcheson v osemnástom storočí dáva najjasnejšie vyjadrenie názoru: „To, čo hovoríme matematicky v štýle Beautiful in Objects, sa zdá byť v zloženom pomere uniformity a rozmanitosti, takže tam, kde uniformita Telá sú si rovné, Krása je ako Varieta a tam, kde je Variety rovnaká, je Krása ako Jednota “(Hutcheson 1725, 29). Navrhovatelia tohto názoru často hovoria „v matematickom štýle“. Hutcheson ďalej uvádza matematické vzorce a konkrétne tvrdenia o Euklidovi ako o najkrajších objektoch (v ďalšej Aristotelovej ozvene), aj keď s nadšením chváli prírodu s jej masívnou zložitosťou podloženou univerzálnymi fyzikálnymi zákonmi, ktoré odhalili napríklad: od Newtona. Existuje krása, hovorí: „Vo vedomostiach niektorých veľkých Princípov alebo univerzálnych Síl, z ktorých vychádzajú nespočetné Účinky. Taká je gravitácia v schéme sira Isaaca Newtona “(Hutcheson 1725, 38).

Veľmi presvedčivú sériu vyvrátení a protikladov k myšlienke, že krása môže byť záležitosťou akýchkoľvek konkrétnych rozmerov medzi časťami, a teda aj ku klasickej koncepcii, podáva Edmund Burke v r. Filozofické skúmanie pôvodu našich ideí krásnych a vznešených:

Ak sa obrátime k zeleninovej ríši, nenájdeme tam nič také pekné ako kvety, ale kvety majú každý druh tvaru a všetky druhy dispozícií sú obrátené a tvarované do nekonečnej rozmanitosti podôb. … Ruža je veľký kvet, napriek tomu rastie na malom kríku, kvet jablka je veľmi malý a rastie na veľkom strome, napriek tomu sú ruža aj kvet jabĺk krásne. ... Labuť, priznane krásny vták, má krk dlhší ako zvyšok tela, ale je to veľmi krátky chvost? to musíme pripustiť. Čo však povieme na páva, ktorý má pomerne krátky krk a chvost dlhší ako krk a zvyšok tela dohromady? ... Existujú niektoré časti ľudského tela, ktoré si navzájom zachovávajú určité proporcie, ale skôr ako sa dá dokázať, že v nich spočíva skutočná príčina krásy, musí sa preukázať, že kdekoľvek sa nájdu presné, osoba, ktorej patria, je krásna. ... Pokiaľ ide o mňa, niekoľkokrát som veľmi pozorne preskúmal mnohé z týchto rozmerov a zistil som, že sa takmer alebo úplne zhodujú v mnohých predmetoch, ktoré sa nielen veľmi líšili, ale aj kde bol jeden veľmi krásny , a druhý veľmi vzdialený od krásy. ... Môžete priradiť ľubovoľné proporcie každej časti ľudského tela a zaväzujem sa, že maliar ich bude všetky dodržiavať, a napriek tomu, ak bude chcieť, vytvorí veľmi škaredú postavu. (Burke 1757, 84–89)

2.2 Idealistická koncepcia

Existuje mnoho spôsobov, ako interpretovať Platónov vzťah k klasickej estetike. Načrtol politický systém Republika charakterizuje spravodlivosť z hľadiska vzťahu časti a celku. Platón však nepochybne bol disidentom aj v klasickej kultúre a v správe o kráse, ktorá je vyjadrená osobitne v Sympózium—Možno kľúčový sokratovský text pre novoplatonizmus a pre idealistické poňatie krásy - vyjadruje túžbu po kráse ako o dokonalej jednote.

Uprostred večierka pri pití rozpráva Socrates učenie svojej inštruktorky, jednej Diotimy, o otázkach lásky. Spája zážitok krásy s erotikou alebo s túžbou reprodukovať (Platón, 558–59 [Symposium 206c – 207e]). Túžba po reprodukcii je však spojená s túžbou po nesmrteľnom alebo večnom: ‘A prečo celá táto túžba po šírení? Pretože toto je ten jeden nesmrtný a večný prvok našej smrteľnosti. A keďže sme sa dohodli, že milenec túži po tom, aby dobro bolo navždy jeho vlastným, z toho vyplýva, že sme povinní túžiť po nesmrteľnosti aj po dobrom - čo znamená, že Láska je túžbou po nesmrteľnosti. “(Platón, 559, [Sympózium 206e – 207a]). Nasleduje, ak nie je to klasické, v každom prípade klasické:

Kandidát na toto zasvätenie nemôže, ak má byť jeho úsilie ocenené, začať príliš skoro na to, aby sa mohol venovať krásam tela. Najskôr, ak ho jeho učiteľ požiada, ako má, zamiluje sa do krásy jedného tela, aby jeho vášeň mohla dať život ušľachtilému diskurzu. Ďalej musí zvážiť, ako skoro súvisí krása ktoréhokoľvek tela s krásou každého iného, ​​a uvidí, že ak sa má venovať pôvabu formy, bude absurdné popierať, že krása každého tela je rovnaký. Po dosiahnutí tohto bodu sa musí stať milencom každého pôvabného tela a svoju vášeň pre jedno priviesť do náležitého pomeru tým, že to bude považovať za malý alebo žiadny význam.

Ďalej musí pochopiť, že krásy tela nie sú ničím krásam duše, takže všade, kde sa stretne s duchovnou láskou, dokonca aj v šupe nemilovaného tela, zistí, že je to dosť pekné na to, aby sa do nich zamiloval a milovať - ​​a dosť krásna na to, aby v jeho srdci vzbudila túžbu po takom diskurze, ktorý smeruje k budovaniu ušľachtilej prírody. A z toho bude vedený k kontemplácii krásy zákonov a inštitúcií. A keď zistí, že všetky druhy krásy sú si navzájom podobné, dôjde k záveru, že krása tela nie je koniec koncov taká veľká chvíľa. …

A tak, keď jeho predpísaná oddanosť chlapčenským krásam preniesla nášho kandidáta tak ďaleko, že na jeho vnútorný pohľad svitne univerzálna krása, je takmer na dosah konečného zjavenia. ... Počnúc jednotlivými krásami, hľadanie univerzálnej krásy ho musí nájsť, ako stúpa na nebeskom rebríku a postupuje od stupne k stupňu - teda od jednej k druhej a z dvoch na každý pôvabné telo a od telesnej krásy ku kráse inštitúcií, od inštitúcií k učeniu a od učenia sa všeobecne k zvláštnej tradícii, ktorá sa netýka ničoho iného ako samotného krásneho - až nakoniec zistí, čo je to krása.

A ak, môj drahý Sokrates, Diotima pokračoval, život človeka niekedy stojí za to žiť, to je vtedy, keď dosiahol túto víziu samotnej duše krásy. (Platón, 561–63 [sympózium 210a – 211d])

Krása je tu koncipovaná - možno výslovne na rozdiel od klasickej estetiky integrálnych častí a koherentného celku - ako dokonalá jednota alebo skutočne ako princíp samotnej jednoty.

Plotinus, ako sme už videli, sa blíži k rovnosti krásy s formovanosťou ako takej: je zdrojom jednoty medzi rozdielnymi vecami a sama je dokonalou jednotou. Plotinus konkrétne útočí na to, čo sme nazvali klasická koncepcia krásy:

Takmer každý vyhlasuje, že symetria častí smerom k sebe navzájom a k celku, okrem iného s určitým farebným kúzlom, predstavuje krásu rozpoznanú okom, ktorá vo viditeľných veciach, ako aj vo všetkých ostatných, univerzálne, krásna vec je v podstate symetrický, vzorovaný.

Ale premýšľajte, čo to znamená.

Iba zmes môže byť krásna, nikdy nebude nič zbavené častí a iba celá niekoľko častí bude mať krásu nie samo o sebe, ale iba ako spoločný produkt, ktorý poskytne úžasný súčet. Napriek tomu krása ako celok vyžaduje krásu v detailoch, ktoré nemožno konštruovať z ošklivosti, ktorej zákon musí platiť.

Všetka pôvabnosť farieb a dokonca aj slnečné svetlo, ktoré je zbavené častí, a tak nie je symetrické, musí byť vylúčené z ríše krásy. A ako to, že zo zlata bude krásna vec? A blesky v noci a hviezdy, prečo sú také spravodlivé?

V zvukoch musí byť zakázané aj jednoduché, aj keď často v celej ušľachtilej kompozícii je každý jeden tón sám o sebe lahodný. (Plotinus, 21 [Ennead 1.6])

A Plotinus vyhlasuje, že oheň je najkrajšia fyzická vec, „ktorá sa vždy pohybuje smerom nahor, je najjemnejšia a najskvelejšia zo všetkých tiel, čo najbližšie k beztelesiu. ... odtiaľ pochádza nádhera jeho svetla, nádhera patriaca Idea “(Plotinus, 22 [Ennead 1.3]). U Plotina aj u Platóna musí byť všetka rozmanitosť nakoniec zahrnutá do jednoty a všetky cesty skúmania a skúseností vedú k Dobrému / Krásnemu / Pravému / Božskému.

Z toho vzišla v podstate mystická vízia Božej krásy, ktorá, ako tvrdí Umberto Eco, pretrvávala po celý stredovek spolu s antiestetickým asketizmom: potešenie z množstva, ktoré sa nakoniec spojilo do jednej duchovnej jednoty. V šiestom storočí Pseudo-Dionýzios Areopagit charakterizoval celé stvorenie tak, že túžba po Bohu je vesmírom povolaná k láske k Bohu ako kráse (Pseudo-Dionýzios, 4.7, pozri Kirwan 1999, 29). Zmyslové / estetické potešenie by sa dalo považovať za vyjadrenie nesmierneho, krásneho hojného zastúpenia Boha a nášho pustošenie. Eco cituje Sugera, opáta sv. Denisa v dvanástom storočí, ktorý popisuje bohato ustanovený kostol:

Keď ma teda - z mojej rozkoše v kráse domu Božieho - pôvab mnohobarevných drahokamov vzdialil od vonkajších starostí a hodná meditácia ma prinútila uvažovať a prenášať to, čo je hmotné, do toho, čo je nehmotný, pokiaľ ide o rozmanitosť posvätných cností: potom sa mi zdá, že sa vidím akoby som prebýval v nejakej podivnej oblasti vesmíru, ktorá neexistuje úplne v hliene Zeme ani úplne v čistote neba a že z milosti Božej sa môžem preniesť z tohto podradného do vyššieho sveta anagogickým spôsobom. (Eco 1959, 14)

Táto koncepcia mala v modernej dobe veľa výrazov, vrátane takých postáv ako Shaftesbury, Schiller a Hegel, podľa ktorých je estetika alebo zážitok z umenia a krásy primárnym mostom (alebo použitie platónskeho obrazu, schodiska alebo rebríka). ) medzi hmotným a duchovným. Pre Shaftesbury existujú tri úrovne krásy: to, čo Boh robí (príroda), čo ľudia vytvárajú z prírody alebo čo je transformované ľudskou inteligenciou (napríklad umenie), a nakoniec to, čo robí dokonca aj tvorcu takých vecí, ako sme my (to znamená , Bože). Postava Shaftesburyho Theocles popisuje „tretí poriadok krásy“

ktoré tvoria nielen také, ktoré nazývame iba formy, ale dokonca aj formy, ktoré tvoria. Pretože my sami sme pozoruhodnými architektmi v hmote a môžeme ukázať telá neživých, ktoré boli prinesené do formy a tvarované vlastnými rukami, ale to, čo si móda zachováva dokonca aj sama, obsahuje sama o sebe všetky krásy, ktoré tieto mysle vytvárajú, a je teda zásadou, zdroj a prameň všetkej krásy. … Čokoľvek sa objaví v našom druhom poradí foriem, alebo čokoľvek, čo je odvodené alebo vyrobené odtiaľ, všetko je to vrcholne, principiálne a pôvodne v tomto poslednom poradí najvyššej a zvrchovanej krásy. ... Takto sa architektúra, hudba a všetko, čo je ľudským vynálezom, prevedie do tohto posledného rádu. (Shaftesbury 1738, 228–29)

Schillerovo vyjadrenie podobnej série myšlienok malo zásadný vplyv na koncepcie krásy vyvinuté v nemeckom idealizme:

Preracionálny koncept krásy, ak by sa dalo niečo také uviesť, nemožno vyvodiť zo žiadneho skutočného prípadu - skôr sa sám spraví a bude viesť náš úsudok o každom konkrétnom prípade, treba ho teda hľadať na ceste abstrakcie. inferred simply from the possibility of a nature that is both sensuous and rational in a word, Beauty must be exhibited as a necessary condition of humanity. Beauty … makes of man a whole, complete in himself. (1795, 59–60, 86)

For Schiller, beauty or play or art (he uses the words, rather cavalierly, almost interchangeably) performs the process of integrating or rendering compatible the natural and the spiritual, or the sensuous and the rational: only in such a state of integration are we—who exist simultaneously on both these levels—free. This is quite similar to Plato's ‘ladder’: beauty as a way to ascend to the abstract or spiritual. But Schiller—though this is at times unclear—is more concerned with integrating the realms of nature and spirit than with transcending the level of physical reality entirely, a la Plato. It is beauty and art that performs this integration.

In this and in other ways—including the tripartite dialectical structure of the view—Schiller strikingly anticipates Hegel, who writes as follows.

The philosophical Concept of the beautiful, to indicate its true nature at least in a preliminary way, must contain, reconciled within itself, both the extremes which have been mentioned [the ideal and the empirical] because it unites metaphysical universality with real particularity. (Hegel 1835, 22)

Beauty, we might say, or artistic beauty at any rate, is a route from the sensuous and particular to the Absolute and to freedom, from finitude to the infinite, formulations that—while they are influenced by Schiller—strikingly recall Shaftesbury, Plotinus, and Plato.

Both Hegel and Shaftesbury, who associate beauty and art with mind and spirit, hold that the beauty of art is higher than the beauty of nature, on the grounds that, as Hegel puts it, “the beauty of art is born of the spirit and born again” (Hegel 1835, 2). That is, the natural world is born of God, but the beauty of art transforms that material again by the spirit of the artist. This idea reaches is apogee in Benedetto Croce, who very nearly denies that nature can ever be beautiful, or at any rate asserts that the beauty of nature is a reflection of the beauty of art. “The real meaning of ‘natural beauty’ is that certain persons, things, places are, by the effect which they exert upon one, comparable with poetry, painting, sculpture, and the other arts” (Croce 1928, 230).

2.3 Love and Longing

Edmund Burke, expressing an ancient tradition, writes that, “by beauty I mean, that quality or those qualities in bodies, by which they cause love, or some passion similar to it” (Burke 1757, 83). As we have seen, in almost all treatments of beauty, even the most apparently object or objectively-oriented, there is a moment in which the subjective qualities of the experience of beauty are emphasized: rhapsodically, perhaps, or in terms of pleasure or ataraxia, as in Schopenhauer. For example, we have already seen Plotinus, for whom beauty is certainly not subjective, describe the experience of beauty ecstatically. In the idealist tradition, the human soul, as it were, recognizes in beauty its true origin and destiny. Among the Greeks, the connection of beauty with love is proverbial from early myth, and Aphrodite the goddess of love won the Judgment of Paris by promising Paris the most beautiful woman in the world.

There is an historical connection between idealist accounts of beauty and those that connect it to love and longing, though there would seem to be no entailment either way. We have Sappho's famous fragment 16: “Some say thronging cavalry, some say foot soldiers, others call a fleet the most beautiful sights the dark world offers, but I say it's whatever you love best” (Sappho, 16). (Indeed, at Phaedrus 236c, Socrates appears to defer to “the fair Sappho” as having had greater insight than himself on love [Plato, 483].)

Plato's discussions of beauty in the Symposium and the Phaedrus occur in the context of the theme of erotic love. In the former, love is portrayed as the ‘child’ of poverty and plenty. “Nor is he delicate and lovely as most of us believe, but harsh and arid, barefoot and homeless” (Plato, 556 [Symposium 203b–d]). Love is portrayed as a lack or absence that seeks its own fulfillment in beauty: a picture of mortality as an infinite longing. Love is always in a state of lack and hence of desire: the desire to possess the beautiful. Then if this state of infinite longing could be trained on the truth, we would have a path to wisdom. The basic idea has been recovered many times, for example by the Romantics. It fueled the cult of idealized or courtly love through the Middle Ages, in which the beloved became a symbol of the infinite.

Recent work on the theory of beauty has revived this idea, and turning away from pleasure has turned toward love or longing (which are not necessarily entirely pleasurable experiences) as the experiential correlate of beauty. Both Sartwell and Nehamas use Sappho's fragment 16 as an epigraph. Sartwell defines beauty as “the object of longing” and characterizes longing as intense and unfulfilled desire. He calls it a fundamental condition of a finite being in time, where we are always in the process of losing whatever we have, and are thus irremediably in a state of longing. And Nehamas writes

I think of beauty as the emblem of what we lack, the mark of an art that speaks to our desire. … Beautiful things don't stand aloof, but direct our attention and our desire to everything else we must learn or acquire in order to understand and possess, and they quicken the sense of life, giving it new shape and direction. (Nehamas 2007, 77)

2.4 Hedonist Conceptions

Thinkers of the 18 th century—many of them oriented toward empiricism—accounted for beauty in terms of pleasure. The Italian historian Ludovico Antonio Muratori, for example, in quite a typical formulation, says that “By beautiful we generally understand whatever, when seen, heard, or understood, delights, pleases, and ravishes us by causing within us agreeable sensations” (see Carritt 1931, 60). In Hutcheson it is not clear whether we ought to conceive beauty primarily in terms of classical formal elements or in terms of the viewer's pleasurable response. He begins the Inquiry Into the Original of Our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue with a discussion of pleasure. And he appears to assert that objects which instantiate his “compound ratio of uniformity and variety’ are peculiarly or necessarily capable of producing pleasure:

The only Pleasure of sense, which our Philosophers seem to consider, is that which accompanys the simple Ideas of Sensation But there are vastly greater Pleasures in those complex Ideas of objects, which obtain the Names of Beautiful, Regular, Harmonious. Thus every one acknowledges he is more delighted with a fine Face, a just Picture, than with the View of any one Colour, were it as strong and lively as possible and more pleased with a Prospect of the Sun arising among settled Clouds, and colouring their Edges, with a starry Hemisphere, a fine Landskip, a regular Building, than with a clear blue Sky, a smooth Sea, or a large open Plain, not diversify'd by Woods, Hills, Waters, Buildings: And yet even these latter Appearances are not quite simple. So in Musick, the Pleasure of fine Composition is incomparably greater than that of any one Note, how sweet, full, or swelling soever. (Hutcheson 1725, 22)

When Hutcheson then goes on to describe ‘original or absolute beauty,’ he does it, as we have seen, in terms of the qualities of the beautiful thing, and yet throughout, he insists that beauty is centered in the human experience of pleasure. But of course the idea of pleasure could come apart from Hutcheson's particular aesthetic preferences, which are poised precisely opposite Plotinus's, for example. That we find pleasure in a symmetrical rather than an asymmetrical building (if we do) is contingent. But that beauty is connected to pleasure appears, according to Hutcheson, to be necessary, and the pleasure which is the locus of beauty itself has ideas rather than things as its object.

Hume writes in a similar vein in the Treatise of Human Nature:

Beauty is such an order and construction of parts as, either by the primary constitution of our nature, by custom, or by caprice, is fitted to give a pleasure and satisfaction to the soul. … Pleasure and pain, therefore, are not only necessary attendants of beauty and deformity, but constitute their very essence. (Hume 1740, 299)

Though this appears ambiguous as between locating the beauty in the pleasure or in the impression or idea that causes it, Hume is soon talking about the ‘sentiment of beauty,’ where sentiment is, roughly, a pleasurable or painful response to impressions or ideas, though beauty is a matter of cultivated or delicate pleasures. Indeed, by the time of Kant's Third Critique and after that for perhaps two centuries, the direct connection of beauty to pleasure is taken as a commonplace, to the point where thinkers are frequently identifying beauty as a certain sort of pleasure. Santayana, for example, as we have seen, while still gesturing in the direction of the object or experience that causes pleasure, emphatically identifies beauty as a certain sort of pleasure.

One result of this approach to beauty—or perhaps an extreme expression of this orientation—is the assertion of the positivists that words such as ‘beauty’ are meaningless or without cognitive content, or are mere expressions of subjective approval. Hume and Kant were no sooner declaring beauty to be a matter of sentiment or pleasure and therefore to be subjective than they were trying to ameliorate the sting, largely by emphasizing critical consensus. But once this fundamental admission is made, any consensus is contingent. Another way to formulate this is that it appears to certain thinkers after Hume and Kant that there can be no reasons to prefer the consensus to a counter-consensus assessment. A.J. Ayer writes:

Such aesthetic words as ‘beautiful’ and ‘hideous’ are employed … not to make statements of fact, but simply to express certain feelings and evoke a certain response. It follows…that there is no sense attributing objective validity to aesthetic judgments, and no possibility of arguing about questions of value in aesthetics. (Ayer 1952, 113)

All meaningful claims either concern the meaning of terms or are empirical, in which case they are meaningful because observations could confirm or disconfirm them. ‘That song is beautiful’ has neither status, and hence has no empirical or conceptual content. It merely expresses a positive attitude of a particular viewer it is an expression of pleasure, like a satisfied sigh. The question of beauty is not a genuine question, and we can safely leave it behind or alone. Most twentieth-century philosophers did just that.

2.5 Use and Uselessness

Philosophers in the Kantian tradition identify the experience of beauty with disinterested pleasure, psychical distance, and the like, and contrast the aesthetic with the practical. “Taste is the faculty of judging an object or mode of representing it by an entirely disinterested satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The object of such satisfaction is called beautiful” (Kant 1790, 45). Edward Bullough distinguishes the beautiful from the merely agreeable on the grounds that the former requires a distance from practical concerns: “Distance is produced in the first instance by putting the phenomenon, so to speak, out of gear with our practical, actual self by allowing it to stand outside the context of our personal needs and ends.“ (Bullough 1912, 244)

On the other hand, many philosophers have gone in the opposite direction and have identified beauty with suitedness to use. ‘Beauty’ is perhaps one of the few terms that could plausibly sustain such entirely opposed interpretations.

According to Diogenes Laertius, the ancient hedonist Aristippus of Cyrene took a rather direct approach.

Is not then, also, a beautiful woman useful in proportion as she is beautiful and a boy and a youth useful in proportion to their beauty? Well then, a handsome boy and a handsome youth must be useful exactly in proportion as they are handsome. Now the use of beauty is, to be embraced. If then a man embraces a woman just as it is useful that he should, he does not do wrong nor, again, will he be doing wrong in employing beauty for the purposes for which it is useful. (Diogenes Laertius, 94)

In some ways, Aristippus is portrayed parodically: as the very worst of the sophists, though supposedly a follower of Socrates. And yet the idea of beauty as suitedness to use finds expression in a number of thinkers. Xenophon's Memorabilia puts the view in the mouth of Socrates, with Aristippus as interlocutor:

Socrates: In short everything which we use is considered both good and beautiful from the same point of view, namely its use.

Aristippus: Why then, is a dung-basket a beautiful thing?

Socrates: Of course it is, and a golden shield is ugly, if the one be beautifully fitted to its purpose and the other ill. (Xenophon, Book III, viii)

Berkeley expresses a similar view in his dialogue Alciphron, though he begins with the hedonist conception: “Every one knows that beauty is what pleases” (Berkeley 1732, 174, see Carritt 1931, 75). But it pleases for reasons of usefulness. Thus, as Xenophon suggests, on this view, things are beautiful only in relation to the uses for which they are intended or to which they are properly applied. The proper proportions of an object depend on what kind of object it is, and again a beautiful ox would make an ugly horse. “The parts, therefore, in true proportions, must be so related, and adjusted to one another, as they may best conspire to the use and operation of the whole” (Berkeley 1732, 174–75, see Carritt 1931, 76). One result of this is that, though beauty remains tied to pleasure, it is not an immediate sensible experience. It essentially requires intellection and practical activity: one has to know the use of a thing, and assess its suitedness to that use.

This treatment of beauty is often used, for example, to criticize the distinction between fine art and craft, and it avoids sheer philistinism by enriching the concept of ‘use,’ so that it might encompass not only performing a practical task, but performing it especially well or with an especial satisfaction. Ananda Coomaraswamy, the Ceylonese-British scholar of Indian and European medieval arts, adds that a beautiful work of art or craft expresses as well as serves its purpose.

A cathedral is not as such more beautiful than an airplane, … a hymn than a mathematical equation. … A well-made sword is not more beautiful than a well-made scalpel, though one is used to slay, the other to heal. Works of art are only good or bad, beautiful or ugly in themselves, to the extent that they are or are not well and truly made, that is, do or do not express, or do or do not serve their purpose. (Coomaraswamy 1977, 75)

Roger Scruton, in his book Beauty (2009) returns to a modified Kantianism with regard to both beauty and sublimity, enriched by many and varied examples. "We call something beautiful," writes Scruton, "when we gain pleasure from contemplating it as an individual object, for its own sake, and in its presented form." (Scruton 2009, 26)

Despite the Kantian framework, Scruton, like Sartwell and Nehamas, throws the subjective/objective distinction into question. He compares experiencing a beautiful thing to a kiss. To kiss someone that one loves is not merely to place one body part on another, "but to touch the other person in his very self. Hence the kiss is compromising - it is a move from one self toward another, and a summoning of the other into the surface of his being." (Scruton 2009, 48)


Ancient Egypt – Beauty, Makeup and Hygiene

Women in Ancient Egypt were fixated on cleanliness, makeup, and beauty. Ancient Egyptians were known for their distinct eye makeup, oils and perfumes.

Ancient Egyptians were fixated on cleanliness and beauty, and at the very least, eye makeup was used by men, women and children of all status. The main ingredient of the makeup was also used to combat eye inflammation and infection ever present in marshy swamps along the Nile and the dry, arid conditions beyond.

Ancient Egyptian Hygiene

Both men and women shaved and plucked all their body hair using tweezers, knives, and razors of flint and metal. Various oils were used as shaving lotions. Rich Egyptians shaved their heads and used wigs made of human hair which were worn every day. Whether or not the women also shaved their heads depended on the dynasty. Aside from being fashionable, wigs were worn to protect the scalp from the sun’s heat and prevent head lice common to the environment. Women who kept their hair used extensions to fill thinning areas, carefully woven and knotted to their own hair with beeswax and resin. Henna was the favorite tint used to cover premature gray – women of ancient Egypt had an average life span of forty. Perfumed oils were rubbed into the scalp after shampooing to scent the hair.

For soap when bathing, natron was used a compound that occurs naturally in baking soda mixed with sodium carbonate, the latter extracted from the ashes of many plants and currently synthetically produced from table salt as a water softener. As far back as 1500 BC, soaps were also made from animal or vegetable oil and salt. Cleansing creams were a mixture of chalk and oil. The wealthy had bathing facilities in their homes, but the majority bathed in the Nile which was also used for laundry and sewage. Water born diseases were common. Queens of Ancient Egypt preferred to bathe in milk as it exfoliated and restored their skin. Linen towels were used for drying.

Undiluted, natron was also used as toothpaste (probably applied by finger) and mouthwash. They chewed parsley or similar herbs for fresh breath. Though the remains of Ancient Egyptians show little tooth decay, their teeth were much worn by the invasive granules of the sands.

Ancient Egyptian Makeup

For cosmetic and fragrance use, Egyptians preferred oil from the Balanites Aegyptiaca – a tree native to Africa and the Middle East, nuts of the Moringa or Horseradish tree, and almond oil. These oils had a pleasing aroma and were beneficial for dry or aging skin. Fenugreek seeds were used as a skin softener and for facial masks, and Ancient Egyptians believed that a tea made from these seeds could stimulate breast growth. Frankincense and myrrh were rubbed into the skin as aromatic protection against the harsh arid climate as well as to rid themselves of body lice. Aloe vera was treasured by Ancient Egyptian queens for smoothing skin. Natural honey was also used as a facial.

Both men and women outlined their eyes in green or black almond shapes with long tails in the outer corners. The green was made from malachite, an oxide of copper from Sinai. Green was eventually replaced with the black color of Galena – lead sulfide found near Aswan and the Red Sea Coast, combined with other ingredients. The materials were powdered on a palette and then mixed with ointments from animal fat to adhere the powder to the eye. Also used as eyeshadow and mascara.

Galena was applied with a small stick, and stored in lidded pots of various sizes and designs. Known to possess disinfectant and fly-repelling properties, Galena was also used as protection from the sun’s rays and the “evil eye”. While all Egyptians used Galena, what separated the classes were the expense and luxury of the containers and applicators. Even the humblest graves had at least simple palettes and the Galena was stored in pouches, jars or reeds. Used as far back as 3500 BC, it is still used today in Egypt under the name Kohl – readily and inexpensively available at the marketplace. The basic containers and applicators are the same as they were in Ancient Egypt.

Saffron (old-world yellow crocus) was also used as an eyeshadow. Burnt almonds combined with minerals were used to shape and color eyebrows and the mixture further developed into another suitable form of eyeshadow. The wealthy used eye shadows made of ground lapis lazuli, azurite and malachite. Their use in Egyptian burial ceremonies dates back to 10,000 BC. For lips and cheeks, Ancient Egyptians used red ochre, ground and mixed with water and applied with a brush. Henna was used to dye the fingernails yellow and orange.

Cleopatra’s lipsticks were made from finely crushed carmine beetles, which had a deep red pigment. This mixture was then combined with ant eggs.

Ancient Egyptian Perfumes

Perfumes made by the Egyptians were very expensive but were high quality and famous throughout the Mediterranean area. Only the wealthy could afford them. To oils were added both local and imported products including frankincense, myrrh, rose, lily, iris, orange, lime, cinnamon and sandalwood.

Though Ancient Egyptian beauty was immortalized by Elizabeth Taylor in the movie Cleopatra, the Egyptians are by no means the only culture to go to great lengths in the name of beauty. Ancient Greek women, preferring a pale countenance, smoothed a paste of white lead mixed with water over their faces and bodies. Surprisingly, their life span of 35 to 40 was no shorter than that of the Ancient Egyptian women.


Obsah

  • 1 Across the globe
    • 1.1 Egypt
    • 1.2 Middle East
    • 1.3 China
    • 1.4 Mongolia
    • 1.5 Japan
    • 1.6 Europe
    • 1.7 The Americas and Australia
  • 2 Recent history
    • 2.1 20th century
    • 2.2 21st century
  • 3 See also
  • 4 References
  • 5 Sources
  • 6 External links

Egypt Edit

The use of cosmetics in Ancient Egypt is well documented. Kohl has its roots in north Africa. Remedies to treat wrinkles containing ingredients such as gum of frankincense and fresh moringa. For scars and burns, a special ointment was made of red ochre, kohl, and sycamore juice. An alternative treatment was a poultice of carob grounds and honey, or an ointment made of knotgrass and powdered root of wormwood. To improve breath the ancient Africans chewed herbs or frankincense which is still in use today. Jars of what could be compared with setting lotion have been found to contain a mixture of beeswax and resin. These doubled as remedies for problems such as baldness and greying hair. They also used these products on their mummies, because they believed that it would make them irresistible in the after life.

Middle East Edit

Cosmetics were used in Persia and what today is Iran from ancient periods. [ potrebná citácia ] Kohl is a black powder that is used widely across the Persian Empire. It is used as a powder or smeared to darken the edges of the eyelids similar to eyeliner. [8] After Persian tribes converted to Islam and conquered those areas, in some areas cosmetics were only restricted if they were to disguise the real look in order to mislead or cause uncontrolled desire. [ potrebná citácia ] In Islamic law, despite these requirements, there is no absolute prohibition on wearing cosmetics the cosmetics must not be made of substances that harm one's body.

An early teacher in the 10th century was Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis, who wrote the 24-volume medical encyclopedia Al-Tasrif. A chapter of the 19th volume was dedicated to cosmetics. As the treatise was translated into Latin, the cosmetic chapter was used in the West. Al-Zahrawi considered cosmetics a branch of medicine, which he called "Medicine of Beauty" (Adwiyat al-Zinah). He deals with perfumes, scented aromatics and incense. There were perfumed sticks rolled and pressed in special molds, perhaps the earliest antecedents of present-day lipsticks and solid deodorants. He also used oily substances called Adhan for medication and beautification. [ potrebná citácia ]

China Edit

Chinese people began to stain their fingernails with gum arabic, gelatin, beeswax and egg white from around 3000 BC. The colors used represented social class: Chou dynasty (first millennium BC) royals wore gold and silver later royals wore black or red. The lower classes were forbidden to wear bright colors on their nails. [9]

Flowers play an important decorative role in China. Legend has it that once on the 7th day of the 1st lunar month, while Princess Shouyang, daughter of Emperor Wu of Liu Song, was resting under the eaves of Hanzhang Palace near the plum trees after wandering in the gardens, a plum blossom drifted down onto her fair face, leaving a floral imprint on her forehead that enhanced her beauty further. [10] [11] [12] The court ladies were said to be so impressed, that they started decorating their own foreheads with a small delicate plum blossom design. [10] [11] [13] This is also the mythical origin of the floral fashion, meihua zhuang [11] (梅花妝 literally "plum blossom makeup"), that originated in the Southern Dynasties (420–589) and became popular amongst ladies in the Tang (618–907) and Song (960–1279) dynasties. [13] [14]

Mongolia Edit

Women of royal families painted red spots on the center of their cheeks, right under their eyes. However, it is a mystery why. [ potrebná citácia ]

Japan Edit

In Japan, geisha wore lipstick made of crushed safflower petals to paint the eyebrows and edges of the eyes as well as the lips, and sticks of bintsuke wax, a softer version of the sumo wrestlers' hair wax, were used by geisha as a makeup base. Rice powder colors the face and back rouge contours the eye socket and defines the nose. [15] Ohaguro (black paint) colours the teeth for the ceremony, called Erikae, when maiko (apprentice geisha) graduate and become independent. The geisha would also sometimes use bird droppings to compile a lighter color.

Europe Edit

In the Roman Empire, the use of cosmetics was common amongst prostitutes and rich women. Such adornment was sometimes lamented by certain Roman writers, who thought it to be against the castitas required of women by what they considered traditional Roman values and later by Christian writers who expressed similar sentiments in a slightly different context. Pliny the Elder mentioned cosmetics in his Naturalis Historia, and Ovid wrote a book on the topic.

In the Middle Ages it was thought sinful and immoral to wear makeup by Church leaders, [ potrebná citácia ] but many women still did so. From the Renaissance up until the 20th century the lower classes had to work outside, in agricultural jobs and the typically light-colored European's skin was darkened by exposure to the sun. The higher a person was in status, the more leisure time he or she had to spend indoors, which kept their skin pale. Thus, the highest class of European society were pale resulting in European men and women attempting to lighten their skin directly, or using white powder on their skin to look more aristocratic. [ potrebná citácia ] A variety of products were used, including white lead paint which also may have contained arsenic, which also poisoned and killed many. [ potrebná citácia ] Queen Elizabeth I of England was one well-known user of white lead, with which she created a look known as "the Mask of Youth". [16] Portraits of the queen by Nicholas Hilliard from later in her reign are illustrative of her influential style. [ potrebná citácia ]

Pale faces were a trend during the European Middle Ages. In the 16th century, women would bleed themselves to achieve pale skin. Spanish prostitutes wore pink makeup to contract pale skin. [ potrebná citácia ] 13th century Italian women wore red lipstick to show that they were upper class. [17] ..

The Americas and Australia Edit

Some Native American tribes painted their faces for ceremonial events or battle. [ potrebná citácia ] Similar practices were followed by Aboriginals in Australia.

20th century Edit

During the early 1900s, makeup was not excessively popular. In fact, women hardly wore makeup at all. Make-up at this time was still mostly the territory of prostitutes, those in cabarets and on the black & white screen. [18] Face enamelling (applying actual paint to the face) became popular among the rich at this time in an attempt to look paler. This practice was dangerous due to the main ingredient often being arsenic. [19] Pale skin was associated with wealth because it meant that one was not out working in the sun and could afford to stay inside all day. Cosmetics were so unpopular that they could not be bought in department stores they could only be bought at theatrical costume stores. A woman's "makeup routine" often only consisted of using papier poudré, a powdered paper/oil blotting sheet, to whiten the nose in the winter and shine their cheeks in the summer. Rouge was considered provocative, so was only seen on "women of the night." Some women used burnt matchsticks to darken eyelashes, and geranium and poppy petals to stain the lips. [19] > Vaseline became high in demand because it was used on chapped lips, as a base for hair tonic, and soap. [19] Toilet waters were introduced in the early 1900s, but only lavender water or refined cologne was admissible for women to wear. [20] Cosmetic deodorant was invented in 1888, by an unknown inventor from Philadelphia and was trademarked under the name Mum (deodorant). Roll-on deodorant was launched in 1952, and aerosol deodorant in 1965.

Around 1910, make-up became fashionable in the United States of America and Europe owing to the influence of ballet and theatre stars such as Mathilde Kschessinska and Sarah Bernhardt. Colored makeup was introduced in Paris upon the arrival of the Russian Ballet in 1910, where ochers and crimsons were the most typical shades. [21] The Daily Mirror beauty book showed that cosmetics were now acceptable for the literate classes to wear. With that said, men often saw rouge as a mark of sex and sin, and rouging was considered an admission of ugliness. In 1915, a Kansas legislature proposed to make it a misdemeanor for women under the age of forty-four to wear cosmetics "for the purpose of creating a false impression." [22] The Daily Mirror was one of the first to suggest using a pencil line (eyeliner) to elongate the eye and an eyelash curler to accentuate the lashes. Eyebrow darkener was also presented in this beauty book, created from gum Arabic, Indian ink, and rosewater. [23] George Burchett developed cosmetic tattooing during this time period. He was able to tattoo on pink blushes, red lips, and dark eyebrows. He also was able to tattoo men disfigured in the First World War by inserting skin tones in damaged faces and by covering scars with colors more pleasing to the eye. [24] Max Factor opened up a professional makeup studio for stage and screen actors in Los Angeles in 1909. [25] Even though his store was intended for actors, ordinary women came in to purchase theatrical eye shadow and eyebrow pencils for their home use.

In the 1920s, the film industry in Hollywood had the most influential impact on cosmetics. Stars such as Theda Bara had a substantial effect on the makeup industry. Helena Rubinstein was Bara's makeup artist she created mascara for the actress, relying on her experiments with kohl. [26] Others who saw the opportunity for the mass-market of cosmetics during this time were Max Factor, Sr., and Elizabeth Arden. Many of the present day makeup manufacturers were established during the 1920s and 1930s. Lipsticks were one of the most popular cosmetics of this time, more so than rouge and powder, because they were colorful and cheap. In 1915, Maurice Levy invented the metal container for lipstick, which gave license to its mass production. [27] The Flapper style also influenced the cosmetics of the 1920s, which embraced dark eyes, red lipstick, red nail polish, and the suntan, invented as a fashion statement by Coco Chanel. The eyebrow pencil became vastly popular in the 1920s, in part because it was technologically superior to what it had been, due to a new ingredient: hydrogenated cottonseed oil (also the key constituent of another wonder product of that era Crisco Oil). [28] The early commercial mascaras, like Maybelline, were simply pressed cakes containing soap and pigments. A woman would dip a tiny brush into hot water, rub the bristles on the cake, remove the excess by rolling the brush onto some blotting paper or a sponge, and then apply the mascara as if her eyelashes were a watercolor canvas. [28] Eugene Schueller, founder of L'Oréal, invented modern synthetic hair dye in 1907 and he also invented sunscreen in 1936. [29] The first patent for a nail polish was granted in 1919. Its color was a very faint pink. It's not clear how dark this rose was, but any girl whose nails were tipped in any pink darker than a baby's blush risked gossip about being "fast." [28] Previously, agricultural workers had only sported suntans, while fashionable women kept their skins as pale as possible. In the wake of Chanel's adoption of the suntan, dozens of new fake tan products were produced to help both men and women achieve the "sun-kissed" look. In Asia, skin whitening continued to represent the ideal of beauty, as it does to this day.

In the time period after the First World War, there was a boom in cosmetic surgery. During the 1920s and 1930s, facial configuration and social identity dominated a plastic surgeon's world. Face-lifts were performed as early as 1920, but it wasn't until the 1960s when cosmetic surgery was used to reduce the signs of aging. [30] During the twentieth century, cosmetic surgery mainly revolved around women. Men only participated in the practice if they had been disfigured by the war. Silicone implants were introduced in 1962. In the 1980s, the American Society of Plastic Surgeons made efforts to increase public awareness about plastic surgery. As a result, in 1982, the United States Supreme Court granted physicians the legal right to advertise their procedures. [31] The optimistic and simplified nature of narrative advertisements often made the surgeries seem hazard-free, even though they were anything but. The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery reported that more than two million Americans elected to undergo cosmetic procedures, both surgical and non-surgical, in 1998, liposuction being the most popular. Breast augmentations ranked second, while numbers three, four, and five went to eye surgery, face-lifts, and chemical peels. [30]

During the 1920s, numerous African Americans participated in skin bleaching in an attempt to lighten their complexion as well as hair straightening to appear whiter. Skin bleaches and hair straighteners created fortunes worth millions and accounted for a massive thirty to fifty percent of all advertisements in the black press of the decade. [32] Oftentimes, these bleaches and straighteners were created and marketed by African American women themselves. Skin bleaches contained caustic chemicals such as hydroquinone, which suppressed the production of melanin in the skin. These bleaches could cause severe dermatitis and even death in high dosages. Many times these regimens were used daily, increasing an individual's risk. In the 1970s, at least 5 companies started producing make-up for African American women. Before the 1970s, makeup shades for Black women were limited. Face makeup and lipstick did not work for dark skin types because they were created for pale skin tones. These cosmetics that were created for pale skin tones only made dark skin appear grey. Eventually, makeup companies created makeup that worked for richer skin tones, such as foundations and powders that provided a natural match. Popular companies like Astarté, Afram, Libra, Flori Roberts and Fashion Fair priced the cosmetics reasonably due to the fact that they wanted to reach out to the masses. [33]

From 1939 to 1945, during the Second World War, cosmetics were in short supply. [34] Petroleum and alcohol, basic ingredients of many cosmetics, were diverted into war supply. Ironically, at this time when they were restricted, lipstick, powder, and face cream were most desirable and most experimentation was carried out for the post war period. Cosmetic developers realized that the war would result in a phenomenal boom afterwards, so they began preparing. Yardley, Elizabeth Arden, Helena Rubinstein, and the French manufacturing company became associated with "quality" after the war because they were the oldest established. Pond's had this same appeal in the lower price range. Gala cosmetics were one of the first to give its products fantasy names, such as the lipsticks in "lantern red" and "sea coral." [35]

During the 1960s and 1970s, many women in the western world influenced by feminism decided to go without any cosmetics. In 1968 at the feminist Miss America protest, protestors symbolically threw a number of feminine products into a "Freedom Trash Can." This included cosmetics, [36] which were among items the protestors called "instruments of female torture" [37] and accouterments of what they perceived to be enforced femininity.

Cosmetics in the 1970s were divided into a "natural look" for day and a more sexualized image for evening. Non-allergic makeup appeared when the bare face was in fashion as women became more interested in the chemical value of their makeup. [38] Modern developments in technology, such as the High-shear mixer facilitated the production of cosmetics which were more natural looking and had greater staying power in wear than their predecessors. [39] The prime cosmetic of the time was eye shadow, though women also were interested in new lipstick colors such as lilac, green, and silver. [40] These lipsticks were often mixed with pale pinks and whites, so women could create their own individual shades. "Blush-ons" came into the market in this decade, with Revlon giving them wide publicity. [40] This product was applied to the forehead, lower cheeks, and chin. Contouring and highlighting the face with white eye shadow cream also became popular. Avon introduced the lady saleswoman. [41] In fact, the whole cosmetic industry in general opened opportunities for women in business as entrepreneurs, inventors, manufacturers, distributors, and promoters. [42]

21st century Edit

Beauty products are now widely available from dedicated internet-only retailers, [43] who have more recently been joined online by established outlets, including the major department stores and traditional bricks and mortar beauty retailers.

Like most industries, cosmetic companies resist regulation by government agencies. In the U.S., the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not approve or review cosmetics, although it does regulate the colors that can be used in the hair dyes. The cosmetic companies are not required to report injuries resulting from use of their products. [44]

Although modern makeup has been used mainly by women traditionally, gradually an increasing number of males are using cosmetics usually associated to women to enhance their own facial features. Concealer is commonly used by cosmetic-conscious men. Cosmetics brands are releasing cosmetic products especially tailored for men, and men are using such products more commonly. [45] There is some controversy over this, however, as many feel that men who wear makeup are neglecting traditional gender, and do not view men wearing cosmetics in a positive light. Others, however, view this as a sign of ongoing gender equality and feel that men also have rights to enhance their facial features with cosmetics if women could.

Today the market of cosmetics has a different dynamic compared to the 20th century. Some countries are driving this economy:

Japan is the second largest market in the world. Regarding the growth of this market, cosmetics in Japan have entered a period of stability. However, the market situation is quickly changing. Now consumers can access a lot of information on the Internet and choose many alternatives, opening up many opportunities for newcomers entering the market, looking for chances to meet the diverse needs of consumers. The size of the cosmetics market for 2010 was 2286 billion yen on the basis of the value of shipments by brand manufacturer. With a growth rate of 0.1%, the market was almost unchanged from the previous year. [46]

One of the most interesting emerging markets, the 5th largest in the world in 2012, the Russian perfumery and cosmetics market has shown the highest growth of 21% since 2004, reaching US$13.5 billion. [ potrebná citácia ]


Academic Tools

How to cite this entry.
Preview the PDF version of this entry at the Friends of the SEP Society.
Look up this entry topic at the Internet Philosophy Ontology Project (InPhO).
Enhanced bibliography for this entry at PhilPapers, with links to its database.

Pozri si video: Prirodna Krása